• ### Avoiding Sulfation

>. . . Rolls recommends a 3-phase charge cycle (Bulk, Absorption &amp; Float) and a charge rate equal to 10% of the C20 (20 hr AH rating) of the battery bank. . .
>
>**Battery Salvation**
. . . The battery should be charged from an outside source at 2.6 to 2.7 - volts per cell and a low current rate (approximately 5 Amps for small batteries and 10-Amps for larger ones) . . .
<a href="http://support.rollsbattery.com/support/solutions/articles/5964-battery-sulfation" target="_blank">Rolls Batteries' View</a>

So for my 2 x 120Ah, that's a large battery (220Ah), should have a minimum or 22A charge ?? and an equalising current of maybe 10A ???????

• ### Specific Gravity as an indicator

The SG quantifies the amount of **Sulfuric Acid** (H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4)</sub> to the **water** (H<sub>2</sub>O) in the battery electrolyte. Water has an SG of 1 so anything higher indicates some solvent.

> The next time your batteries don't seem to be taking or holding a charge, check the specific gravity with a hydrometer. If all cells are low even after a long time on charge, chances are you've got some hardened sulfate that has accumulated on the plates. By following the instructions outlined above, the problem may be corrected.
<a href="http://support.rollsbattery.com/support/solutions/articles/5964-battery-sulfation" target="_blank">Rolls Batteries' View</a>

**Lead (Pb) is sulfated** as it takes the place of the Hydrogen (H) atom. So lead becomes <strong> lead sulfate (PbSO<sub>4</sub>)</strong>: <em>Plumbum: Latin</em>

The general level of acid gives the electrolyte an SG of around 1.28 and could well be 1.3

**If the level is high** it would in normal circumstances indicates that the battery is fully charged. However if water has been lost during charging this will also show as an increased SG.

**If the level is low** Hopefully this is part of the normal cyclic sulfation process that occurs as the battery discharges and the SO<sub>4</sub> transfers from the electrolyte to the the lead plates back to the water when charged. Only when the plates have been left discharged for 'quite a while' does the sulfation become difficult to undue and the battery looses capacity, then even with charging the SG stays low.

If despite fears of hardened sulfation it is possible to restore the SG to 1.28 or more then then there is no significantly hardened sulfation.

Longs periods of overcharging are often used to force the sulfate to migrate from the lead plates back to the water. There are other methods such as elctro-vibrations and chemicals that are used, but they are not something I am familiar with.

• ### Screen Interface Not Adaptable

The output does'nt fit my computer screen of 1920 x 1200 and there is no option to scroll, so details are cropped on the battery usage: See image 1
![](http://unveiled.info/media/blogs/solect/img/posts/victron/vedirect/screen.jpg "null")

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